1. Preparing your Environment for Installation

1.1. System Requirements

The following requirements apply to the networked base operating system:

  • x86_64 architecture

  • 4-core 2.0 GHz CPU at a minimum

  • A minimum of 12 GB RAM is required for Smart Proxy server to function. In addition, a minimum of 4 GB RAM of swap space is also recommended. Smart Proxy running with less RAM than the minimum value might not operate correctly.

  • A unique host name, which can contain lower-case letters, numbers, dots (.) and hyphens (-)

  • Administrative user (root) access

  • Full forward and reverse DNS resolution using a fully-qualified domain name

Foreman only supports UTF-8 encoding. If your territory is USA and your language is English, set en_US.utf-8 as the system-wide locale settings. For more information about configuring system locale in Enterprise Linux, see Configuring System Locale guide.

Foreman server and Smart Proxy server do not support shortnames in the hostnames. When using custom certificates, the Common Name (CN) of the custom certificate must be a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) instead of a shortname. This does not apply to the clients of a Foreman.

Before you install Smart Proxy server, ensure that your environment meets the requirements for installation.

Smart Proxy server must be installed on a freshly provisioned system that serves no other function except to run Smart Proxy server. The freshly provisioned system must not have the following users provided by external identity providers to avoid conflicts with the local users that Smart Proxy server creates:

  • apache

  • foreman-proxy

  • postgres

  • pulp

  • puppet

  • qdrouterd

SELinux Mode

SELinux must be enabled, either in enforcing or permissive mode. Installation with disabled SELinux is not supported.

FIPS Mode

You can install Smart Proxy server on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system that is operating in FIPS mode. Red Hat Enterprise Linux clones are not being actively tested in FIPS mode. If you require FIPS, consider using Red Hat Enterprise Linux. For more information, see Installing a RHEL 8 system with FIPS mode enabled in Security hardening.

Note

Foreman supports DEFAULT and FIPS crypto-policies. The FUTURE crypto-policy is not supported for Foreman and Smart Proxy installations.

1.2. Storage Requirements

The following table details storage requirements for specific directories. These values are based on expected use case scenarios and can vary according to individual environments.

The runtime size was measured with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, 7, and 8 repositories synchronized.

Table 1. Storage Requirements for Smart Proxy server Installation
Directory Installation Size Runtime Size

/var/lib/pulp

1 MB

300 GB

/var/lib/pgsql

100 MB

10 GB

/usr

3 GB

Not Applicable

/opt/puppetlabs

500 MB

Not Applicable

1.3. Storage Guidelines

Consider the following guidelines when installing Smart Proxy server to increase efficiency.

  • If you mount the /tmp directory as a separate file system, you must use the exec mount option in the /etc/fstab file. If /tmp is already mounted with the noexec option, you must change the option to exec and re-mount the file system. This is a requirement for the puppetserver service to work.

  • Because most Smart Proxy server data is stored in the /var directory, mounting /var on LVM storage can help the system to scale.

  • The /var/lib/qpidd/ directory uses slightly more than 2 MB per Content Host managed by the goferd service. For example, 10 000 Content Hosts require 20 GB of disk space in /var/lib/qpidd/.

  • Use high-bandwidth, low-latency storage for the /var/lib/pulp/ directories. As Foreman has many operations that are I/O intensive, using high latency, low-bandwidth storage causes performance degradation. Ensure your installation has a speed in the range 60 – 80 Megabytes per second.

File System Guidelines
  • Do not use the GFS2 file system as the input-output latency is too high.

Log File Storage

Log files are written to /var/log/messages/, /var/log/httpd/, and /var/lib/foreman-proxy/openscap/content/. You can manage the size of these files using logrotate.

The exact amount of storage you require for log messages depends on your installation and setup.

SELinux Considerations for NFS Mount

When the /var/lib/pulp directory is mounted using an NFS share, SELinux blocks the synchronization process. To avoid this, specify the SELinux context of the /var/lib/pulp directory in the file system table by adding the following lines to /etc/fstab:

nfs.example.com:/nfsshare  /var/lib/pulp  nfs  context="system_u:object_r:var_lib_t:s0"  1 2

If NFS share is already mounted, remount it using the above configuration and enter the following command:

# restorecon -R /var/lib/pulp
Duplicated Packages

Packages that are duplicated in different repositories are only stored once on the disk. Additional repositories containing duplicate packages require less additional storage. The bulk of storage resides in the /var/lib/pulp/ directory. These end points are not manually configurable. Ensure that storage is available on the /var file system to prevent storage problems.

Symbolic links

You cannot use symbolic links for /var/lib/pulp/.

Synchronized RHEL ISO

If you plan to synchronize RHEL content ISOs to Foreman, note that all minor versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux also synchronize. You must plan to have adequate storage on your Foreman to manage this.

1.4. Supported Operating Systems

You can install the operating system from a disc, local ISO image, or kickstart.

The following operating systems are supported by the installer, have packages, and are tested for deploying Foreman:

Table 2. Operating Systems supported by foreman-installer

Operating System

Architecture

Notes

Enterprise Linux 8

x86_64 only

EPEL is not supported.

Before you install Foreman, apply all operating system updates if possible.

Install Smart Proxy server on a freshly provisioned system.

1.5. Ports and Firewalls Requirements

For the components of Foreman architecture to communicate, ensure that the required network ports are open and free on the base operating system. You must also ensure that the required network ports are open on any network-based firewalls.

The installation of a Smart Proxy server fails if the ports between Foreman server and Smart Proxy server are not open before installation starts.

Use this information to configure any network-based firewalls. Note that some cloud solutions must be specifically configured to allow communications between machines because they isolate machines similarly to network-based firewalls. If you use an application-based firewall, ensure that the application-based firewall permits all applications that are listed in the tables and known to your firewall. If possible, disable the application checking and allow open port communication based on the protocol.

Integrated Smart Proxy

Foreman server has an integrated Smart Proxy and any host that is directly connected to Foreman server is a Client of Foreman in the context of this section. This includes the base operating system on which Smart Proxy server is running.

Clients of Smart Proxy

Hosts which are clients of Smart Proxies, other than Foreman’s integrated Smart Proxy, do not need access to Foreman server. For more information on Foreman Topology, see Smart Proxy Networking in Planning for Foreman.

Required ports can change based on your configuration.

The following tables indicate the destination port and the direction of network traffic:

Table 3. Smart Proxy incoming traffic
Destination Port Protocol Service Source Required For Description

53

TCP and UDP

DNS

DNS Servers and clients

Name resolution

DNS (optional)

67

UDP

DHCP

Client

Dynamic IP

DHCP (optional)

69

UDP

TFTP

Client

TFTP Server (optional)

443, 80

TCP

HTTPS, HTTP

Client

Content Retrieval

Content

443, 80

TCP

HTTPS, HTTP

Client

Content Host Registration

Smart Proxy CA RPM installation

443

TCP

HTTPS

Foreman

Content Mirroring

Management

443

TCP

HTTPS

Foreman

Smart Proxy API

Smart Proxy functionality

443

TCP

HTTPS

Client

Content Host registration

Initiation

Uploading facts

Sending installed packages and traces

1883

TCP

MQTT

Client

Pull based REX (optional)

Content hosts for REX job notification (optional)

5646, 5647

TCP

AMQP

Client

Goferd message bus

Forward message to client (optional)

Katello agent to communicate with Qpid dispatcher

8000

TCP

HTTP

Client

Provisioning templates

Template retrieval for client installers, iPXE or UEFI HTTP Boot

8000

TCP

HTTP

Client

PXE Boot

Installation

8140

TCP

HTTPS

Client

Puppet agent

Client updates (optional)

8443

TCP

HTTPS

Client

Content Host registration

Deprecated and only needed for Client hosts deployed before upgrades

9090

TCP

HTTPS

Client

OpenSCAP

Configure Client

9090

TCP

HTTPS

Discovered Node

Discovery

Host discovery and provisioning

9090

TCP

HTTPS

Foreman

Smart Proxy API

Smart Proxy functionality

Any managed host that is directly connected to Foreman server is a client in this context because it is a client of the integrated Smart Proxy. This includes the base operating system on which a Smart Proxy server is running.

A DHCP Smart Proxy performs ICMP ping and TCP echo connection attempts to hosts in subnets with DHCP IPAM set to find out if an IP address considered for use is free. This behavior can be turned off using foreman-installer --foreman-proxy-dhcp-ping-free-ip=false.

Table 4. Smart Proxy outgoing traffic
Destination Port Protocol Service Destination Required For Description

ICMP

ping

Client

DHCP

Free IP checking (optional)

7

TCP

echo

Client

DHCP

Free IP checking (optional)

22

TCP

SSH

Target host

Remote execution

Run jobs

53

TCP and UDP

DNS

DNS Servers on the Internet

DNS Server

Resolve DNS records (optional)

53

TCP and UDP

DNS

DNS Server

Smart Proxy DNS

Validation of DNS conflicts (optional)

68

UDP

DHCP

Client

Dynamic IP

DHCP (optional)

443

TCP

HTTPS

Foreman

Smart Proxy

Smart Proxy

Configuration management

Template retrieval

OpenSCAP

Remote Execution result upload

443

TCP

HTTPS

Foreman

Content

Sync

443

TCP

HTTPS

Foreman

Client communication

Forward requests from Client to Foreman

443

TCP

HTTPS

Infoblox DHCP Server

DHCP management

When using Infoblox for DHCP, management of the DHCP leases (optional)

623

Client

Power management

BMC On/Off/Cycle/Status

5646

TCP

AMQP

Foreman server

Katello agent

Forward message to Qpid dispatch router on Smart Proxy (optional)

7911

TCP

DHCP, OMAPI

DHCP Server

DHCP

The DHCP target is configured using --foreman-proxy-dhcp-server and defaults to localhost

ISC and remote_isc use a configurable port that defaults to 7911 and uses OMAPI

8443

TCP

HTTPS

Client

Discovery

Smart Proxy sends reboot command to the discovered host (optional)

Note
ICMP to Port 7 UDP and TCP must not be rejected, but can be dropped. The DHCP Smart Proxy sends an ECHO REQUEST to the Client network to verify that an IP address is free. Any response will prevent IP addresses being allocated.

1.6. Enabling Connections from Smart Proxy server to Foreman server

On Foreman server, you must enable the incoming connection from Smart Proxy server to Foreman server and make this rule persistent across reboots.

Prerequisites
  • Ensure that the firewall rules on Foreman server are configured to enable connections for client to Foreman communication, because Smart Proxy server is a client of Foreman server. For more information, see Enabling Connections from a Client to Foreman server in Installing Foreman 3.5 Server with Katello 4.7 Plugin on RHEL/CentOS.

If you do not use firewall-cmd to configure the Linux firewall, implement using the command of your choice.

Procedure
  1. On Foreman server, enter the following command to open the port for Smart Proxy to Foreman communication:

    # firewall-cmd --add-port="5646/tcp"
  2. Make the changes persistent:

    # firewall-cmd --runtime-to-permanent

1.7. Enabling Connections from Foreman server and Clients to a Smart Proxy server

On the base operating system on which you want to install Smart Proxy, you must enable incoming connections from Foreman server and clients to Smart Proxy server and make these rules persistent across reboots.

If you do not use firewall-cmd to configure the Linux firewall, implement using the command of your choice.

Procedure
  1. On the base operating system on which you want to install Smart Proxy, enter the following command to open the ports for Foreman server and clients communication to Smart Proxy server:

    # firewall-cmd \
    --add-port="53/udp" --add-port="53/tcp" \
    --add-port="67/udp" \
    --add-port="69/udp" \
    --add-port="80/tcp" --add-port="443/tcp" \
    --add-port="5647/tcp" \
    --add-port="8140/tcp" \
    --add-port="8443/tcp" \
    --add-port="8000/tcp" --add-port="9090/tcp"
  2. Make the changes persistent:

    # firewall-cmd --runtime-to-permanent

1.8. Verifying Firewall Settings

Use this procedure to verify your changes to the firewall settings.

If you do not use firewall-cmd to configure the Linux firewall, implement using the command of your choice.

Procedure
  1. Enter the following command:

    # firewall-cmd --list-all

For more information, see Using and Configuring firewalld in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 Securing networks.

2. Installing Smart Proxy server

Before you install Smart Proxy server, you must ensure that your environment meets the requirements for installation. For more information, see Preparing your Environment for Installation.

2.1. Registering to Foreman server

Use this procedure to register the base operating system on which you want to install Smart Proxy server to Foreman server.

Registering your Smart Proxy server as a content host is optional unless you wish to download the installation packages from your synced repositories.

Red Hat Subscription Manifest Prerequisites
  • On Foreman server, a manifest must be installed and it must contain the appropriate repositories for the organization you want Smart Proxy to belong to.

  • The manifest must contain repositories for the base operating system on which you want to install Smart Proxy, as well as any clients that you want to connect to Smart Proxy.

  • The repositories must be synchronized.

For more information on manifests and repositories, see Managing Red Hat Subscriptions in Managing Content.

Proxy and Network Prerequisites
  • The Foreman server base operating system must be able to resolve the host name of the Smart Proxy base operating system and vice versa.

  • Ensure HTTPS connection using client certificate authentication is possible between Smart Proxy server and Foreman server. HTTP proxies between Smart Proxy server and Foreman server are not supported.

  • You must configure the host and network-based firewalls accordingly. For more information, see Ports and Firewalls Requirements. You can register hosts with Foreman using the host registration feature, the Foreman API, or Hammer CLI.

Procedure
  1. In the Foreman web UI, navigate to Hosts > Register Host.

  2. Click Generate to create the registration command.

  3. Click on the files icon to copy the command to your clipboard.

  4. Log in to the host you want register and run the previously generated command.

  5. Update subscription manager configuration for rhsm.baseurl and server.hostname:

    # subscription-manager config \
    --rhsm.baseurl=https://loadbalancer.example.com/pulp/content \
    --server.hostname=loadbalancer.example.com
  6. Check the /etc/yum.repos.d/redhat.repo file and ensure that the appropriate repositories have been enabled.

CLI procedure
  1. Generate the host registration command using the Hammer CLI:

    # hammer host-registration generate-command \
    --activation-keys "My_Activation_Key"
  2. Log in to the host you want register and run the previously generated command.

  3. Update subscription manager configuration for rhsm.baseurl and server.hostname:

    # subscription-manager config \
    --rhsm.baseurl=https://loadbalancer.example.com/pulp/content \
    --server.hostname=loadbalancer.example.com
  4. Check the /etc/yum.repos.d/redhat.repo file and ensure that the appropriate repositories have been enabled.

API procedure
  1. Generate the host registration command using the Foreman API:

    # curl -X POST https://foreman.example.com/api/registration_commands \
    --user "My_User_Name" \
    -H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
    -d '{ "registration_command": { "activation_keys": ["My_Activation_Key_1, My_Activation_Key_2"] }}'

    Use an activation key to simplify specifying the environments. For more information, see Managing Activation Keys in Managing Content.

    To enter a password as command line argument, use username:password syntax. Keep in mind this can save the password in the shell history.

    For more information about registration see Registering a Host to Foreman in Managing Hosts.

  2. Log in to the host you want register and run the previously generated command.

  3. Update subscription manager configuration for rhsm.baseurl and server.hostname:

    # subscription-manager config \
    --rhsm.baseurl=https://loadbalancer.example.com/pulp/content \
    --server.hostname=loadbalancer.example.com
  4. Check the /etc/yum.repos.d/redhat.repo file and ensure that the appropriate repositories have been enabled.

2.2. Installing Smart Proxy server Packages

Before installing Smart Proxy server packages, you must update all packages that are installed on the base operating system.

Procedure

To install Smart Proxy server, complete the following steps:

  1. Update all packages:

    # dnf update
  2. Install foreman-proxy-content

    # dnf install foreman-proxy-content

2.3. Installing Smart Proxy server

Procedure

2.4. Synchronizing the System Clock With chronyd

To minimize the effects of time drift, you must synchronize the system clock on the base operating system on which you want to install Smart Proxy server with Network Time Protocol (NTP) servers. If the base operating system clock is configured incorrectly, certificate verification might fail.

For more information about the chrony suite, see Using the Chrony suite to configure NTP in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 Configuring basic system settings.

Procedure
  1. Install the chrony package:

    # dnf install chrony
  2. Start and enable the chronyd service:

    # systemctl enable --now chronyd

2.5. Configuring Smart Proxy server with SSL Certificates

Foreman uses SSL certificates to enable encrypted communications between Foreman server, external Smart Proxy servers, and all hosts. Depending on the requirements of your organization, you must configure your Smart Proxy server with a default or custom certificate.

2.5.1. Configuring Smart Proxy server with a Default SSL Certificate

Use this section to configure Smart Proxy server with an SSL certificate that is signed by Foreman server default Certificate Authority (CA).

Prerequisites
Procedure
  1. On Foreman server, to store all the source certificate files for your Smart Proxy server, create a directory that is accessible only to the root user, for example /root/smart-proxy_cert:

    # mkdir /root/smart-proxy_cert
  2. On Foreman server, generate the /root/smart-proxy_cert/smart-proxy_certs.tar certificate archive for your Smart Proxy server:

    # foreman-proxy-certs-generate \
    --foreman-proxy-fqdn smartproxy.example.com \
    --certs-tar /root/smart-proxy_cert/smart-proxy_certs.tar

    Retain a copy of the foreman-installer command that the foreman-proxy-certs-generate command returns for deploying the certificate to your Smart Proxy server.

    Example output of foreman-proxy-certs-generate
    output omitted
    foreman-installer --scenario foreman-proxy-content \
    --certs-tar-file "/root/smart-proxy_certs.tar" \
    --foreman-proxy-register-in-foreman "true" \
    --foreman-proxy-foreman-base-url "https://foreman.example.com" \
    --foreman-proxy-trusted-hosts "foreman.example.com" \
    --foreman-proxy-trusted-hosts "smartproxy.example.com" \
    --foreman-proxy-oauth-consumer-key "s97QxvUAgFNAQZNGg4F9zLq2biDsxM7f" \
    --foreman-proxy-oauth-consumer-secret "6bpzAdMpRAfYaVZtaepYetomgBVQ6ehY" \
    --puppet-server-foreman-url "https://foreman.example.com"
  3. On Foreman server, copy the certificate archive file to your Smart Proxy server:

    # scp /root/smart-proxy_cert/smartproxy.example.com-certs.tar \
    root@smartproxy.example.com:/root/smartproxy.example.com-certs.tar
  4. On Smart Proxy server, to deploy the certificate, enter the foreman-installer command that the foreman-proxy-certs-generate command returns.

    When network connections or ports to Foreman are not yet open, you can set the --foreman-proxy-register-in-foreman option to false to prevent Smart Proxy from attempting to connect to Foreman and reporting errors. Run the installer again with this option set to true when the network and firewalls are correctly configured.

    Important
    Do not delete the certificate archive file after you deploy the certificate. It is required, for example, when upgrading Smart Proxy server.

2.5.2. Configuring Smart Proxy server with a Custom SSL Certificate

If you configure Foreman server to use a custom SSL certificate, you must also configure each of your external Smart Proxy servers with a distinct custom SSL certificate.

To configure your Smart Proxy server with a custom certificate, complete the following procedures on each Smart Proxy server:

Creating a Custom SSL Certificate for Smart Proxy server

On Foreman server, create a custom certificate for your Smart Proxy server. If you already have a custom SSL certificate for Smart Proxy server, skip this procedure.

When you configure Smart Proxy server with custom certificates, note the following considerations:

  • You must use the Privacy-Enhanced Mail (PEM) encoding for the SSL certificates.

  • You cannot use the same certificate for both Foreman server and Smart Proxy server.

  • The same Certificate Authority must sign certificates for Foreman server and Smart Proxy server.

Procedure
  1. To store all the source certificate files, create a directory that is accessible only to the root user.

    # mkdir /root/smart-proxy_cert
  2. Create a private key with which to sign the Certificate Signing Request (CSR).

    Note that the private key must be unencrypted. If you use a password-protected private key, remove the private key password.

    If you already have a private key for this Smart Proxy server, skip this step.

    # openssl genrsa -out /root/smart-proxy_cert/smart-proxy_cert_key.pem 4096
  3. Create the /root/smart-proxy_cert/openssl.cnf configuration file for the Certificate Signing Request (CSR) and include the following content:

    [ req ]
    req_extensions = v3_req
    distinguished_name = req_distinguished_name
    x509_extensions = usr_cert
    prompt = no
    
    [ req_distinguished_name ] (1)
    C  = Country Name (2 letter code)
    ST = State or Province Name (full name)
    L  = Locality Name (eg, city)
    O  = Organization Name (eg, company)
    OU = The division of your organization handling the certificate
    CN = smart-proxy.example.com (2)
    
    [ v3_req ]
    basicConstraints = CA:FALSE
    keyUsage = digitalSignature, nonRepudiation, keyEncipherment, dataEncipherment
    extendedKeyUsage = serverAuth, clientAuth, codeSigning, emailProtection
    subjectAltName = @alt_names
    
    [ usr_cert ]
    basicConstraints=CA:FALSE
    nsCertType = client, server, email
    keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
    extendedKeyUsage = serverAuth, clientAuth, codeSigning, emailProtection
    nsComment = "OpenSSL Generated Certificate"
    subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
    authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer
    
    [ alt_names ]
    DNS.1 = smart-proxy.example.com (3)
    1. In the [ req_distinguished_name ] section, enter information about your organization.

    2. Set the certificate’s Common Name CN to match the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of your Smart Proxy server or a wildcard value *. To confirm a FQDN, on that Smart Proxy server, enter the hostname -f command. This is required to ensure that the katello-certs-check command validates the certificate correctly. If you set a wildcard value, you must add the -t foreman-proxy option when you use the katello-certs-check command.

    3. Set the Subject Alternative Name (SAN) DNS.1 to match the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of your server.

  4. Generate the Certificate Signing Request (CSR):

    # openssl req -new \
    -key /root/smart-proxy_cert/smart-proxy_cert_key.pem \ (1)
    -config /root/smart-proxy_cert/openssl.cnf \ (2)
    -out /root/smart-proxy_cert/smart-proxy_cert_csr.pem (3)
    1. Path to the private key.

    2. Path to the configuration file.

    3. Path to the CSR to generate.

  5. Send the certificate signing request to the Certificate Authority. The same Certificate Authority must sign certificates for Foreman server and Smart Proxy server.

    When you submit the request, specify the lifespan of the certificate. The method for sending the certificate request varies, so consult the Certificate Authority for the preferred method. In response to the request, you can expect to receive a Certificate Authority bundle and a signed certificate, in separate files.

Deploying a Custom SSL Certificate to Smart Proxy server

Use this procedure to configure your Smart Proxy server with a custom SSL certificate signed by a Certificate Authority. The foreman-installer command, which the foreman-proxy-certs-generate command returns, is unique to each Smart Proxy server. Do not use the same command on more than one Smart Proxy server.

Prerequisites
Procedure
  1. On Foreman server, validate the custom SSL certificate input files:

    # katello-certs-check \
    -t foreman-proxy -c /root/smart-proxy_cert/smart-proxy_cert.pem \      (1)
    -k /root/smart-proxy_cert/smart-proxy_cert_key.pem \  (2)
    -b /root/smart-proxy_cert/ca_cert_bundle.pem      (3)
    1. Path to Smart Proxy server certificate file that is signed by a Certificate Authority.

    2. Path to the private key that was used to sign Smart Proxy server certificate.

    3. Path to the Certificate Authority bundle.

    If you set a wildcard value * for the certificate’s Common Name CN = in the /root/smart-proxy_cert/openssl.cnf configuration file, you must add the -t foreman-proxy option to the katello-certs-check command.

    If the command is successful, it returns two foreman-proxy-certs-generate commands, one of which you must use to generate the certificate archive file for your Smart Proxy server.

    Example output of katello-certs-check
    Validation succeeded.
    
    To use them inside a NEW $FOREMAN_PROXY, run this command:
      foreman-proxy-certs-generate --foreman-proxy-fqdn "$FOREMAN_PROXY" \
        --certs-tar  "~$FOREMAN_PROXY-certs.tar" \
        --server-cert "/root/smart-proxy_cert/smart-proxy_cert.pem" \
        --server-key "/root/smart-proxy_cert/smart-proxy_cert_key.pem" \
        --server-ca-cert "/root/smart-proxy_cert/ca_cert_bundle.pem" \
    
    To use them inside an EXISTING $FOREMAN_PROXY, run this command INSTEAD:
      foreman-proxy-certs-generate --foreman-proxy-fqdn "\$FOREMAN_PROXY" \
        --certs-tar  "~/$FOREMAN_PROXY-certs.tar" \
        --server-cert "/root/smart-proxy_cert/smart-proxy_cert.pem" \
        --server-key "/root/smart-proxy_cert/smart-proxy_cert_key.pem" \
        --server-ca-cert "/root/smart-proxy_cert/ca_cert_bundle.pem" \
        --certs-update-server
  2. On Foreman server, from the output of the katello-certs-check command, depending on your requirements, enter the foreman-proxy-certs-generate command that generates a certificate for a new or existing Smart Proxy.

    In this command, change $FOREMAN_PROXY to the FQDN of your Smart Proxy server.

  3. Retain a copy of the foreman-installer command that the foreman-proxy-certs-generate command returns for deploying the certificate to your Smart Proxy server.

    Example output of foreman-proxy-certs-generate
    output omitted
    foreman-installer --scenario foreman-proxy-content \
    --certs-tar-file "/root/smart-proxy_certs.tar" \
    --foreman-proxy-register-in-foreman "true" \
    --foreman-proxy-foreman-base-url "https://foreman.example.com" \
    --foreman-proxy-trusted-hosts "foreman.example.com" \
    --foreman-proxy-trusted-hosts "smartproxy.example.com" \
    --foreman-proxy-oauth-consumer-key "s97QxvUAgFNAQZNGg4F9zLq2biDsxM7f" \
    --foreman-proxy-oauth-consumer-secret "6bpzAdMpRAfYaVZtaepYetomgBVQ6ehY" \
    --puppet-server-foreman-url "https://foreman.example.com"
  4. On Foreman server, copy the certificate archive file to your Smart Proxy server:

    # scp /root/smart-proxy_cert/smartproxy.example.com-certs.tar \
    root@smartproxy.example.com:/root/smartproxy.example.com-certs.tar
  5. On Smart Proxy server, to deploy the certificate, enter the foreman-installer command that the foreman-proxy-certs-generate command returns.

    When network connections or ports to Foreman are not yet open, you can set the --foreman-proxy-register-in-foreman option to false to prevent Smart Proxy from attempting to connect to Foreman and reporting errors. Run the installer again with this option set to true when the network and firewalls are correctly configured.

    Important
    Do not delete the certificate archive file after you deploy the certificate. It is required, for example, when upgrading Smart Proxy server.
Deploying a Custom SSL Certificate to Hosts

After you configure Smart Proxy server to use a custom SSL certificate, you must also install the katello-ca-consumer package on every host that is registered to this Smart Proxy server.

Procedure
  • On each host, install the katello-ca-consumer package:

    # dnf install http://smart-proxy.example.com/pub/katello-ca-consumer-latest.noarch.rpm

2.6. Container Gateway Configuration

Use this section to configure the Container Gateway on Smart Proxy server.

Prerequisites

The Container Gateway is installed by default with the foreman-proxy-content scenario. If you wish to disable it, you must set the --foreman-proxy-content-enable-docker installer option to false.

Procedure

The default configuration should be sufficient for most users. If the default configuration isn’t sufficient, the configuration may be changed in /etc/foreman-proxy/settings.d/container_gateway.yml:

---
:enabled: true
:pulp_endpoint: 'https://your_pulp_3_server_here.com'
:pulp_client_ssl_ca: 'CA Cert for authenticating with Pulp'
:pulp_client_ssl_cert: 'X509 certificate for authenticating with Pulp'
:pulp_client_ssl_key: 'RSA private key for the Pulp certificate'
:katello_registry_path: 'Katello container registry suffix, e.g., /v2/'
:sqlite_db_path: '/var/lib/foreman-proxy/smart_proxy_container_gateway.db'

2.7. Assigning the Correct Organization and Location to Smart Proxy server in the Foreman web UI

After installing Smart Proxy server packages, if there is more than one organization or location, you must assign the correct organization and location to Smart Proxy to make Smart Proxy visible in the Foreman web UI.

Procedure
  1. Log into the Foreman web UI.

  2. From the Organization list in the upper-left of the screen, select Any Organization.

  3. From the Location list in the upper-left of the screen, select Any Location.

  4. In the Foreman web UI, navigate to Hosts > All Hosts and select Smart Proxy server.

  5. From the Select Actions list, select Assign Organization.

  6. From the Organization list, select the organization where you want to assign this Smart Proxy.

  7. Click Fix Organization on Mismatch.

  8. Click Submit.

  9. Select Smart Proxy server. From the Select Actions list, select Assign Location.

  10. From the Location list, select the location where you want to assign this Smart Proxy.

  11. Click Fix Location on Mismatch.

  12. Click Submit.

  13. In the Foreman web UI, navigate to Administer > Organizations and click the organization to which you have assigned Smart Proxy.

  14. Click Smart Proxies tab and ensure that Smart Proxy server is listed under the Selected items list, then click Submit.

  15. In the Foreman web UI, navigate to Administer > Locations and click the location to which you have assigned Smart Proxy.

  16. Click Smart Proxies tab and ensure that Smart Proxy server is listed under the Selected items list, then click Submit.

Verification

Optionally, you can verify if Smart Proxy server is correctly listed in the Foreman web UI.

  1. Select the organization from the Organization list.

  2. Select the location from the Location list.

  3. In the Foreman web UI, navigate to Hosts > All Hosts.

  4. In the Foreman web UI, navigate to Infrastructure > Smart Proxies.

3. Performing Additional Configuration on Smart Proxy server

Use this chapter to configure additional settings on your Smart Proxy server.

3.1. Enabling Katello Agent on External Smart Proxies

Remote Execution is the primary method of managing packages on Content Hosts. To be able to use the deprecated Katello Agent it must be enabled on each Smart Proxy.

Procedure
  • To enable Katello Agent infrastructure, enter the following command:

    # foreman-installer --scenario foreman-proxy-content \
    --foreman-proxy-content-enable-katello-agent=true

3.2. Configuring Remote Execution for Pull Client

By default, Remote Execution uses SSH as the transport mechanism for the Script provider. However, Remote Execution also offers pull-based transport, which you can use if your infrastructure prohibits outgoing connections from Smart Proxy to hosts.

This is comprised of pull-mqtt mode on Smart Proxy in combination with a pull client running on hosts. Configure the pull-mqtt mode to migrate from Katello Agent, which is a deprecated method of pull-based transport.

Note
The pull-mqtt mode works only with the Script provider. Ansible and other providers will continue to use their default transport settings.

The mode is configured per Smart Proxy. Some Smart Proxies can be configured to use pull-mqtt mode while others use SSH. If this is the case, it is possible that one remote job on a given host will use the pull client and the next job on the same host will use SSH. If you wish to avoid this scenario, configure all Smart Proxies to use the same mode.

Procedure
  1. Enable the pull-based transport on each relevant Smart Proxy server:

     # foreman-installer --scenario foreman-proxy-content \
    --foreman-proxy-plugin-remote-execution-script-mode pull-mqtt
  2. Configure the firewall to allow MQTT service on port 1883:

    # firewall-cmd --add-port="1883/tcp"
    # firewall-cmd --runtime-to-permanent
  3. In pull-mqtt mode, hosts subscribe for job notifications to the Smart Proxy through which they are registered. Therefore, it is recommended to ensure that Foreman server sends remote execution jobs to that same Smart Proxy. To do this, in the Foreman web UI, navigate to Administer > Settings. On the Content tab, set the value of Prefer registered through Smart Proxy for remote execution to Yes.

  4. After you set up the pull-based transport on Smart Proxy, you must also configure it on each host. For more information, see Transport Modes for Remote Execution in Managing Hosts.

3.3. Enabling OpenSCAP on External Smart Proxies

On Foreman server and the integrated Smart Proxy of your Foreman server, OpenSCAP is enabled by default. To use the OpenSCAP plug-in and content on an external Smart Proxy, you must enable OpenSCAP on each Smart Proxy.

Procedure
  • To enable OpenSCAP, enter the following command:

    # foreman-installer --scenario foreman-proxy-content \
    --enable-foreman-proxy-plugin-openscap

3.4. Adding Life Cycle Environments to Smart Proxy servers

If your Smart Proxy server has the content functionality enabled, you must add an environment so that Smart Proxy can synchronize content from Foreman server and provide content to host systems.

Do not assign the Library lifecycle environment to your Smart Proxy server because it triggers an automated Smart Proxy sync every time the CDN updates a repository. This might consume multiple system resources on Smart Proxies, network bandwidth between Foreman and Smart Proxies, and available disk space on Smart Proxies.

You can use Hammer CLI on Foreman server or the Foreman web UI.

Procedure
  1. In the Foreman web UI, navigate to Infrastructure > Smart Proxies, and select the Smart Proxy that you want to add a life cycle to.

  2. Click Edit and click the Life Cycle Environments tab.

  3. From the left menu, select the life cycle environments that you want to add to Smart Proxy and click Submit.

  4. To synchronize the content on the Smart Proxy, click the Overview tab and click Synchronize.

  5. Select either Optimized Sync or Complete Sync.

    For definitions of each synchronization type, see Recovering a Repository.

CLI procedure
  1. To display a list of all Smart Proxy servers, on Foreman server, enter the following command:

    # hammer capsule list

    Note the Smart Proxy ID of the Smart Proxy that you want to add a life cycle to.

  2. Using the ID, verify the details of your Smart Proxy:

    # hammer capsule info --id capsule_id
  3. To view the life cycle environments available for your Smart Proxy server, enter the following command and note the ID and the organization name:

    # hammer capsule content available-lifecycle-environments --id capsule_id
  4. Add the life cycle environment to your Smart Proxy server:

    # hammer capsule content add-lifecycle-environment \
    --id capsule_id --organization "My_Organization" \
    --lifecycle-environment-id lifecycle-environment_id

    Repeat for each life cycle environment you want to add to Smart Proxy server.

  5. Synchronize the content from Foreman to Smart Proxy.

    • To synchronize all content from your Foreman server environment to Smart Proxy server, enter the following command:

      # hammer capsule content synchronize --id capsule_id
    • To synchronize a specific life cycle environment from your Foreman server to Smart Proxy server, enter the following command:

      # hammer capsule content synchronize --id external_capsule_id \
      --lifecycle-environment-id lifecycle-environment_id

3.5. Enabling Power Management on Managed Hosts

To perform power management tasks on managed hosts using the intelligent platform management interface (IPMI) or a similar protocol, you must enable the baseboard management controller (BMC) module on Smart Proxy server.

Prerequisites
Procedure
  • To enable BMC, enter the following command:

    # foreman-installer --scenario foreman-proxy-content \
    --foreman-proxy-bmc "true" \
    --foreman-proxy-bmc-default-provider "freeipmi"

3.6. Configuring DNS, DHCP, and TFTP on Smart Proxy server

To configure the DNS, DHCP, and TFTP services on Smart Proxy server, use the foreman-installer command with the options appropriate for your environment. To view a complete list of configurable options, enter the foreman-installer --scenario katello --help command.

Any changes to the settings require entering the foreman-installer command again. You can enter the command multiple times and each time it updates all configuration files with the changed values.

To use external DNS, DHCP, and TFTP services instead, see Configuring Smart Proxy server with External Services.

Adding Multihomed DHCP details

If you want to use Multihomed DHCP, you must inform the installer.

Prerequisites
  • You must have the correct network name (dns-interface) for the DNS server.

  • You must have the correct interface name (dhcp-interface) for the DHCP server.

  • Contact your network administrator to ensure that you have the correct settings.

Procedure
  • Enter the foreman-installer command with the options appropriate for your environment. The following example shows configuring full provisioning services:

    # foreman-installer --scenario foreman-proxy-content \
    --foreman-proxy-dns true \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-managed true \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-interface eth0 \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-zone example.com \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-reverse 2.0.192.in-addr.arpa \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp true \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-managed true \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-interface eth0 \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-additional-interfaces eth1 \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-additional-interfaces eth2 \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-range "192.0.2.100 192.0.2.150" \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-gateway 192.0.2.1 \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-nameservers 192.0.2.2 \
    --foreman-proxy-tftp true \
    --foreman-proxy-tftp-managed true \
    --foreman-proxy-tftp-servername 192.0.2.3

For more information about configuring DHCP, DNS, and TFTP services, see Configuring Network Services in Provisioning Hosts.

4. Configuring Smart Proxy server with External Services

If you do not want to configure the DNS, DHCP, and TFTP services on Smart Proxy server, use this section to configure your Smart Proxy server to work with external DNS, DHCP and TFTP services.

4.1. Configuring Smart Proxy server with External DNS

You can configure Smart Proxy server with external DNS. Smart Proxy server uses the nsupdate utility to update DNS records on the remote server.

To make any changes persistent, you must enter the foreman-installer command with the options appropriate for your environment.

Prerequisites
  • You must have a configured external DNS server.

  • This guide assumes you have an existing installation.

Procedure
  1. Copy the /etc/rndc.key file from the external DNS server to Smart Proxy server:

    # scp root@dns.example.com:/etc/rndc.key /etc/foreman-proxy/rndc.key
  2. Configure the ownership, permissions, and SELinux context:

    # restorecon -v /etc/foreman-proxy/rndc.key
    # chown -v root:foreman-proxy /etc/foreman-proxy/rndc.key
    # chmod -v 640 /etc/foreman-proxy/rndc.key
  3. To test the nsupdate utility, add a host remotely:

    # echo -e "server DNS_IP_Address\n \
    update add aaa.example.com 3600 IN A Host_IP_Address\n \
    send\n" | nsupdate -k /etc/foreman-proxy/rndc.key
    # nslookup aaa.example.com DNS_IP_Address
    # echo -e "server DNS_IP_Address\n \
    update delete aaa.example.com 3600 IN A Host_IP_Address\n \
    send\n" | nsupdate -k /etc/foreman-proxy/rndc.key
  4. Enter the foreman-installer command to make the following persistent changes to the /etc/foreman-proxy/settings.d/dns.yml file:

    # foreman-installer --foreman-proxy-dns=true \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-managed=false \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-provider=nsupdate \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-server="DNS_IP_Address" \
    --foreman-proxy-keyfile=/etc/foreman-proxy/rndc.key
  5. In the Foreman web UI, navigate to Infrastructure > Smart Proxies.

  6. Locate the Smart Proxy server and select Refresh from the list in the Actions column.

  7. Associate the DNS service with the appropriate subnets and domain.

4.2. Configuring Smart Proxy server with External DHCP

To configure Smart Proxy server with external DHCP, you must complete the following procedures:

4.2.1. Configuring an External DHCP Server to Use with Smart Proxy server

To configure an external DHCP server running Enterprise Linux to use with Smart Proxy server, you must install the ISC DHCP Service and Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) packages. You must also share the DHCP configuration and lease files with Smart Proxy server. The example in this procedure uses the distributed Network File System (NFS) protocol to share the DHCP configuration and lease files.

Note
If you use dnsmasq as an external DHCP server, enable the dhcp-no-override setting. This is required because Foreman creates configuration files on the TFTP server under the grub2/ subdirectory. If the dhcp-no-override setting is disabled, clients fetch the bootloader and its configuration from the root directory, which might cause an error.

If you do not use firewall-cmd to configure the Linux firewall, implement using the command of your choice.

Procedure
  1. On your Enterprise Linux host, install the ISC DHCP Service and Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) packages:

    # dnf install dhcp bind
  2. Generate a security token:

    # dnssec-keygen -a HMAC-MD5 -b 512 -n HOST omapi_key

    As a result, a key pair that consists of two files is created in the current directory.

  3. Copy the secret hash from the key:

    # cat Komapi_key.+*.private |grep ^Key|cut -d ' ' -f2
  4. Edit the dhcpd configuration file for all of the subnets and add the key. The following is an example:

    # cat /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
    default-lease-time 604800;
    max-lease-time 2592000;
    log-facility local7;
    
    subnet 192.168.38.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
    	range 192.168.38.10 192.168.38.100;
    	option routers 192.168.38.1;
    	option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
    	option domain-search "virtual.lan";
    	option domain-name "virtual.lan";
    	option domain-name-servers 8.8.8.8;
    }
    
    omapi-port 7911;
    key omapi_key {
    	algorithm HMAC-MD5;
    	secret "jNSE5YI3H1A8Oj/tkV4...A2ZOHb6zv315CkNAY7DMYYCj48Umw==";
    };
    omapi-key omapi_key;

    Note that the option routers value is the Foreman or Smart Proxy IP address that you want to use with an external DHCP service.

  5. Delete the two key files from the directory that they were created in.

  6. On Foreman server, define each subnet. Do not set DHCP Smart Proxy for the defined Subnet yet.

    To prevent conflicts, set up the lease and reservation ranges separately. For example, if the lease range is 192.168.38.10 to 192.168.38.100, in the Foreman web UI define the reservation range as 192.168.38.101 to 192.168.38.250.

  7. Configure the firewall for external access to the DHCP server:

    # firewall-cmd --add-service dhcp \
    && firewall-cmd --runtime-to-permanent
  8. On Foreman server, determine the UID and GID of the foreman user:

    # id -u foreman
    993
    # id -g foreman
    990
  9. On the DHCP server, create the foreman user and group with the same IDs as determined in a previous step:

    # groupadd -g 990 foreman
    # useradd -u 993 -g 990 -s /sbin/nologin foreman
  10. To ensure that the configuration files are accessible, restore the read and execute flags:

    # chmod o+rx /etc/dhcp/
    # chmod o+r /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
    # chattr +i /etc/dhcp/ /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
  11. Enable and start the DHCP service:

    # systemctl enable --now dhcpd
  12. Export the DHCP configuration and lease files using NFS:

    # dnf install nfs-utils
    # systemctl enable --now nfs-server
  13. Create directories for the DHCP configuration and lease files that you want to export using NFS:

    # mkdir -p /exports/var/lib/dhcpd /exports/etc/dhcp
  14. To create mount points for the created directories, add the following line to the /etc/fstab file:

    /var/lib/dhcpd /exports/var/lib/dhcpd none bind,auto 0 0
    /etc/dhcp /exports/etc/dhcp none bind,auto 0 0
  15. Mount the file systems in /etc/fstab:

    # mount -a
  16. Ensure the following lines are present in /etc/exports:

    /exports 192.168.38.1(rw,async,no_root_squash,fsid=0,no_subtree_check)
    
    /exports/etc/dhcp 192.168.38.1(ro,async,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check,nohide)
    
    /exports/var/lib/dhcpd 192.168.38.1(ro,async,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check,nohide)

    Note that the IP address that you enter is the Foreman or Smart Proxy IP address that you want to use with an external DHCP service.

  17. Reload the NFS server:

    # exportfs -rva
  18. Configure the firewall for the DHCP omapi port 7911:

    # firewall-cmd --add-port="7911/tcp" \
    && firewall-cmd --runtime-to-permanent
  19. Optional: Configure the firewall for external access to NFS. Clients are configured using NFSv3.

    # firewall-cmd --zone public --add-service mountd \
    && firewall-cmd --zone public --add-service rpc-bind \
    && firewall-cmd --zone public --add-service nfs \
    && firewall-cmd --runtime-to-permanent

4.2.2. Configuring Foreman server with an External DHCP Server

You can configure Smart Proxy server with an external DHCP server.

Prerequisite
Procedure
  1. Install the nfs-utils package:

    # dnf install nfs-utils
  2. Create the DHCP directories for NFS:

    # mkdir -p /mnt/nfs/etc/dhcp /mnt/nfs/var/lib/dhcpd
  3. Change the file owner:

    # chown -R foreman-proxy /mnt/nfs
  4. Verify communication with the NFS server and the Remote Procedure Call (RPC) communication paths:

    # showmount -e DHCP_Server_FQDN
    # rpcinfo -p DHCP_Server_FQDN
  5. Add the following lines to the /etc/fstab file:

    DHCP_Server_FQDN:/exports/etc/dhcp /mnt/nfs/etc/dhcp nfs
    ro,vers=3,auto,nosharecache,context="system_u:object_r:dhcp_etc_t:s0" 0 0
    
    DHCP_Server_FQDN:/exports/var/lib/dhcpd /mnt/nfs/var/lib/dhcpd nfs
    ro,vers=3,auto,nosharecache,context="system_u:object_r:dhcpd_state_t:s0" 0 0
  6. Mount the file systems on /etc/fstab:

    # mount -a
  7. To verify that the foreman-proxy user can access the files that are shared over the network, display the DHCP configuration and lease files:

    # su foreman-proxy -s /bin/bash
    bash-4.2$ cat /mnt/nfs/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
    bash-4.2$ cat /mnt/nfs/var/lib/dhcpd/dhcpd.leases
    bash-4.2$ exit
  8. Enter the foreman-installer command to make the following persistent changes to the /etc/foreman-proxy/settings.d/dhcp.yml file:

    # foreman-installer --foreman-proxy-dhcp=true \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-provider=remote_isc \
    --foreman-proxy-plugin-dhcp-remote-isc-dhcp-config /mnt/nfs/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf \
    --foreman-proxy-plugin-dhcp-remote-isc-dhcp-leases /mnt/nfs/var/lib/dhcpd/dhcpd.leases \
    --foreman-proxy-plugin-dhcp-remote-isc-key-name=omapi_key \
    --foreman-proxy-plugin-dhcp-remote-isc-key-secret=jNSE5YI3H1A8Oj/tkV4...A2ZOHb6zv315CkNAY7DMYYCj48Umw== \
    --foreman-proxy-plugin-dhcp-remote-isc-omapi-port=7911 \
    --enable-foreman-proxy-plugin-dhcp-remote-isc \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-server=DHCP_Server_FQDN
  9. Associate the DHCP service with the appropriate subnets and domain.

4.3. Configuring Smart Proxy server with External TFTP

You can configure Smart Proxy server with external TFTP services.

Procedure
  1. Create the TFTP directory for NFS:

    # mkdir -p /mnt/nfs/var/lib/tftpboot
  2. In the /etc/fstab file, add the following line:

    TFTP_Server_IP_Address:/exports/var/lib/tftpboot /mnt/nfs/var/lib/tftpboot nfs rw,vers=3,auto,nosharecache,context="system_u:object_r:tftpdir_rw_t:s0" 0 0
  3. Mount the file systems in /etc/fstab:

    # mount -a
  4. Enter the foreman-installer command to make the following persistent changes to the /etc/foreman-proxy/settings.d/tftp.yml file:

    # foreman-installer --foreman-proxy-tftp=true \
    --foreman-proxy-tftp-root /mnt/nfs/var/lib/tftpboot
  5. If the TFTP service is running on a different server than the DHCP service, update the tftp_servername setting with the FQDN or IP address of the server that the TFTP service is running on:

    # foreman-installer --foreman-proxy-tftp-servername=TFTP_Server_FQDN
  6. In the Foreman web UI, navigate to Infrastructure > Smart Proxies.

  7. Locate the Smart Proxy server and select Refresh from the list in the Actions column.

  8. Associate the TFTP service with the appropriate subnets and domain.

4.4. Configuring Smart Proxy server with External IdM DNS

When Foreman server adds a DNS record for a host, it first determines which Smart Proxy is providing DNS for that domain. It then communicates with the Smart Proxy that is configured to provide DNS service for your deployment and adds the record. The hosts are not involved in this process. Therefore, you must install and configure the IdM client on the Foreman or Smart Proxy that is currently configured to provide a DNS service for the domain you want to manage using the IdM server.

Smart Proxy server can be configured to use a Red Hat Identity Management (IdM) server to provide DNS service. For more information about Red Hat Identity Management, see the Linux Domain Identity, Authentication, and Policy Guide.

To configure Smart Proxy server to use a Red Hat Identity Management (IdM) server to provide DNS service, use one of the following procedures:

To revert to internal DNS service, use the following procedure:

Note
You are not required to use Smart Proxy server to manage DNS. When you are using the realm enrollment feature of Foreman, where provisioned hosts are enrolled automatically to IdM, the ipa-client-install script creates DNS records for the client. Configuring Smart Proxy server with external IdM DNS and realm enrollment are mutually exclusive. For more information about configuring realm enrollment, see External Authentication for Provisioned Hosts in Administering Foreman.

4.4.1. Configuring Dynamic DNS Update with GSS-TSIG Authentication

You can configure the IdM server to use the generic security service algorithm for secret key transaction (GSS-TSIG) technology defined in RFC3645. To configure the IdM server to use the GSS-TSIG technology, you must install the IdM client on the Smart Proxy server base operating system.

Prerequisites
  • You must ensure the IdM server is deployed and the host-based firewall is configured correctly. For more information, see Port Requirements in the Linux Domain Identity, Authentication, and Policy Guide.

  • You must contact the IdM server administrator to ensure that you obtain an account on the IdM server with permissions to create zones on the IdM server.

  • You should create a backup of the answer file. You can use the backup to restore the answer file to its original state if it becomes corrupted. For more information, see Configuring Foreman server.

Procedure

To configure dynamic DNS update with GSS-TSIG authentication, complete the following steps:

Creating a Kerberos Principal on the IdM Server
  1. Obtain a Kerberos ticket for the account obtained from the IdM administrator:

    # kinit idm_user
  2. Create a new Kerberos principal for Smart Proxy server to use to authenticate on the IdM server.

    # ipa service-add smartproxy.example.com
Installing and Configuring the IdM Client
  1. On the base operating system of either the Foreman or Smart Proxy that is managing the DNS service for your deployment, install the ipa-client package:

    # dnf install ipa-client
  2. Configure the IdM client by running the installation script and following the on-screen prompts:

    # ipa-client-install
  3. Obtain a Kerberos ticket:

    # kinit admin
  4. Remove any preexisting keytab:

    # rm /etc/foreman-proxy/dns.keytab
  5. Obtain the keytab for this system:

    # ipa-getkeytab -p smart-proxy/foreman.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM \
    -s idm1.example.com -k /etc/foreman-proxy/dns.keytab
    Note

    When adding a keytab to a standby system with the same host name as the original system in service, add the r option to prevent generating new credentials and rendering the credentials on the original system invalid.

  6. For the dns.keytab file, set the group and owner to foreman-proxy:

    # chown foreman-proxy:foreman-proxy /etc/foreman-proxy/dns.keytab
  7. Optional: To verify that the keytab file is valid, enter the following command:

    # kinit -kt /etc/foreman-proxy/dns.keytab \
    smart-proxy/foreman.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
Configuring DNS Zones in the IdM web UI
  1. Create and configure the zone that you want to manage:

    1. Navigate to Network Services > DNS > DNS Zones.

    2. Select Add and enter the zone name. For example, example.com.

    3. Click Add and Edit.

    4. Click the Settings tab and in the BIND update policy box, add the following to the semi-colon separated list:

      grant smart-proxy/047foreman.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM wildcard * ANY;
    5. Set Dynamic update to True.

    6. Enable Allow PTR sync.

    7. Click Save to save the changes.

  2. Create and configure the reverse zone:

    1. Navigate to Network Services > DNS > DNS Zones.

    2. Click Add.

    3. Select Reverse zone IP network and add the network address in CIDR format to enable reverse lookups.

    4. Click Add and Edit.

    5. Click the Settings tab and in the BIND update policy box, add the following to the semi-colon separated list:

      grant smart-proxy\047foreman.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM wildcard * ANY;
    6. Set Dynamic update to True.

    7. Click Save to save the changes.

Configuring the Foreman or Smart Proxy server that Manages the DNS Service for the Domain
  1. Use the foreman-installer command to configure the Foreman or Smart Proxy that manages the DNS Service for the domain:

    • On Foreman, enter the following command:

      foreman-installer --scenario katello \
      --foreman-proxy-dns=true \
      --foreman-proxy-dns-managed=false \
      --foreman-proxy-dns-provider=nsupdate_gss \
      --foreman-proxy-dns-server="idm1.example.com" \
      --foreman-proxy-dns-tsig-principal="smart-proxy/foreman.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM" \
      --foreman-proxy-dns-tsig-keytab=/etc/foreman-proxy/dns.keytab
    • On Smart Proxy, enter the following command:

      foreman-installer --scenario foreman-proxy-content \
      --foreman-proxy-dns=true \
      --foreman-proxy-dns-managed=false \
      --foreman-proxy-dns-provider=nsupdate_gss \
      --foreman-proxy-dns-server="idm1.example.com" \
      --foreman-proxy-dns-tsig-principal="smart-proxy/foreman.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM" \
      --foreman-proxy-dns-tsig-keytab=/etc/foreman-proxy/dns.keytab

After you run the foreman-installer command to make any changes to your Smart Proxy configuration, you must update the configuration of each affected Smart Proxy in the Foreman web UI.

Updating the Configuration in the Foreman web UI
  1. In the Foreman web UI, navigate to Infrastructure > Smart Proxies, locate the Smart Proxy server, and from the list in the Actions column, select Refresh.

  2. Configure the domain:

    1. In the Foreman web UI, navigate to Infrastructure > Domains and select the domain name.

    2. In the Domain tab, ensure DNS Smart Proxy is set to the Smart Proxy where the subnet is connected.

  3. Configure the subnet:

    1. In the Foreman web UI, navigate to Infrastructure > Subnets and select the subnet name.

    2. In the Subnet tab, set IPAM to None.

    3. In the Domains tab, select the domain that you want to manage using the IdM server.

    4. In the Smart Proxies tab, ensure Reverse DNS Smart Proxy is set to the Smart Proxy where the subnet is connected.

    5. Click Submit to save the changes.

4.4.2. Configuring Dynamic DNS Update with TSIG Authentication

You can configure an IdM server to use the secret key transaction authentication for DNS (TSIG) technology that uses the rndc.key key file for authentication. The TSIG protocol is defined in RFC2845.

Prerequisites
  • You must ensure the IdM server is deployed and the host-based firewall is configured correctly. For more information, see Port Requirements in the Linux Domain Identity, Authentication, and Policy Guide.

  • You must obtain root user access on the IdM server.

  • You must confirm whether Foreman server or Smart Proxy server is configured to provide DNS service for your deployment.

  • You must configure DNS, DHCP and TFTP services on the base operating system of either the Foreman or Smart Proxy that is managing the DNS service for your deployment.

  • You must create a backup of the answer file. You can use the backup to restore the answer file to its original state if it becomes corrupted. For more information, see Configuring Foreman server.

Procedure

To configure dynamic DNS update with TSIG authentication, complete the following steps:

Enabling External Updates to the DNS Zone in the IdM Server
  1. On the IdM Server, add the following to the top of the /etc/named.conf file:

    ########################################################################
    
    include "/etc/rndc.key";
    controls  {
    inet _IdM_Server_IP_Address_ port 953 allow { _Foreman_IP_Address_; } keys { "rndc-key"; };
    };
    ########################################################################
  2. Reload the named service to make the changes take effect:

    # systemctl reload named
  3. In the IdM web UI, navigate to Network Services > DNS > DNS Zones and click the name of the zone. In the Settings tab, apply the following changes:

    1. Add the following in the BIND update policy box:

      grant "rndc-key" zonesub ANY;
    2. Set Dynamic update to True.

    3. Click Update to save the changes.

  4. Copy the /etc/rndc.key file from the IdM server to the base operating system of your Foreman server. Enter the following command:

    # scp /etc/rndc.key root@satellite.example.com:/etc/rndc.key
  5. To set the correct ownership, permissions, and SELinux context for the rndc.key file, enter the following command:

    # restorecon -v /etc/rndc.key
    # chown -v root:named /etc/rndc.key
    # chmod -v 640 /etc/rndc.key
  6. Assign the foreman-proxy user to the named group manually. Normally, foreman-installer ensures that the foreman-proxy user belongs to the named UNIX group, however, in this scenario Foreman does not manage users and groups, therefore you need to assign the foreman-proxy user to the named group manually.

    # usermod -a -G named foreman-proxy
  7. On Foreman server, enter the following foreman-installer command to configure Foreman to use the external DNS server:

    # foreman-installer --scenario katello \
    --foreman-proxy-dns=true \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-managed=false \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-provider=nsupdate \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-server="IdM_Server_IP_Address" \
    --foreman-proxy-keyfile=/etc/rndc.key \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-ttl=86400
Testing External Updates to the DNS Zone in the IdM Server
  1. Ensure that the key in the /etc/rndc.key file on Foreman server is the same key file that is used on the IdM server:

    key "rndc-key" {
            algorithm hmac-md5;
            secret "secret-key==";
    };
  2. On Foreman server, create a test DNS entry for a host. For example, host test.example.com with an A record of 192.168.25.20 on the IdM server at 192.168.25.1.

    # echo -e "server 192.168.25.1\n \
    update add test.example.com 3600 IN A 192.168.25.20\n \
    send\n" | nsupdate -k /etc/rndc.key
  3. On Foreman server, test the DNS entry:

    # nslookup test.example.com 192.168.25.1
    Server:		192.168.25.1
    Address:	192.168.25.1#53
    
    Name:	test.example.com
    Address: 192.168.25.20
  4. To view the entry in the IdM web UI, navigate to Network Services > DNS > DNS Zones. Click the name of the zone and search for the host by name.

  5. If resolved successfully, remove the test DNS entry:

    # echo -e "server 192.168.25.1\n \
    update delete test.example.com 3600 IN A 192.168.25.20\n \
    send\n" | nsupdate -k /etc/rndc.key
  6. Confirm that the DNS entry was removed:

    # nslookup test.example.com 192.168.25.1

    The above nslookup command fails and returns the SERVFAIL error message if the record was successfully deleted.

4.4.3. Reverting to Internal DNS Service

You can revert to using Foreman server and Smart Proxy server as your DNS providers. You can use a backup of the answer file that was created before configuring external DNS, or you can create a backup of the answer file. For more information about answer files, see Configuring Foreman server.

Procedure

On the Foreman or Smart Proxy server that you want to configure to manage DNS service for the domain, complete the following steps:

Configuring Foreman or Smart Proxy as a DNS Server
  • If you have created a backup of the answer file before configuring external DNS, restore the answer file and then enter the foreman-installer command:

    # foreman-installer
  • If you do not have a suitable backup of the answer file, create a backup of the answer file now. To configure Foreman or Smart Proxy as DNS server without using an answer file, enter the following foreman-installer command on Foreman or Smart Proxy:

    # foreman-installer \
    --foreman-proxy-dns=true \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-managed=true \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-provider=nsupdate \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-server="127.0.0.1"

After you run the foreman-installer command to make any changes to your Smart Proxy configuration, you must update the configuration of each affected Smart Proxy in the Foreman web UI.

Updating the Configuration in the Foreman web UI
  1. In the Foreman web UI, navigate to Infrastructure > Smart Proxies.

  2. For each Smart Proxy that you want to update, from the Actions list, select Refresh.

  3. Configure the domain:

    1. In the Foreman web UI, navigate to Infrastructure > Domains and click the domain name that you want to configure.

    2. In the Domain tab, set DNS Smart Proxy to the Smart Proxy where the subnet is connected.

  4. Configure the subnet:

    1. In the Foreman web UI, navigate to Infrastructure > Subnets and select the subnet name.

    2. In the Subnet tab, set IPAM to DHCP or Internal DB.

    3. In the Domains tab, select the domain that you want to manage using Foreman or Smart Proxy.

    4. In the Smart Proxies tab, set Reverse DNS Smart Proxy to the Smart Proxy where the subnet is connected.

    5. Click Submit to save the changes.

5. Managing DHCP Using Smart Proxy

Foreman can integrate with a DHCP service using your Smart Proxy. A Smart Proxy has multiple DHCP providers that you can use to integrate Foreman with your existing DHCP infrastructure or deploy a new one. You can use the DHCP module of Smart Proxy to query for available IP addresses, add new, and delete existing reservations. Note that your Smart Proxy cannot manage subnet declarations.

Available DHCP providers

5.1. Configuring dhcp_libvirt

The dhcp_libvirt plugin manages IP reservations and leases using dnsmasq through the libvirt API. It uses ruby-libvirt to connect to the local or remote instance of libvirt daemon.

Procedure
  • You can use foreman-installer to configure dhcp_libvirt:

    foreman-installer \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp true \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-provider libvirt \
    --foreman-proxy-libvirt-network default \
    --foreman-proxy-libvirt-network qemu:///system

5.2. Securing the dhcpd API

Smart Proxy interacts with DHCP daemon using the dhcpd API to manage DHCP. By default, the dhcpd API listens to any host without access control. You can add an omapi_key to provide basic security.

Procedure
  1. Install the required packages:

    # dnf install install bind-utils
  2. Generate a key:

    # dnssec-keygen -r /dev/urandom -a HMAC-MD5 -b 512 -n HOST omapi_key
    # cat Komapi_key.+*.private | grep ^Key|cut -d ' ' -f2-
  3. Use foreman-installer to secure the dhcpd API:

    # foreman-installer \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-key-name "My_Name" \
    --foreman-proxy-dhcp-key-secret "My_Secret"

6. Managing DNS Using Smart Proxy

Foreman can manage DNS records using your Smart Proxy. DNS management contains updating and removing DNS records from existing DNS zones. A Smart Proxy has multiple DNS providers that you can use to integrate Foreman with your existing DNS infrastructure or deploy a new one.

After you have enabled DNS, your Smart Proxy can manipulate any DNS server that complies with RFC 2136 using the dns_nsupdate provider. Other providers provide more direct integration, such as dns_infoblox for Infoblox.

Available DNS Providers

For more information, see List of DNS plugins

6.1. Configuring dns_libvirt

The dns_libvirt DNS provider manages DNS records using dnsmasq through the libvirt API. It uses ruby-libvirt gem to connect to the local or a remote instance of libvirt daemon.

Procedure
  • You can use foreman-installer to configure dns_libvirt:

    # foreman-installer \
    --foreman-proxy-dns true \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-provider libvirt \
    --foreman-proxy-libvirt-network default \
    --foreman-proxy-libvirt-url qemu:///system

    Note that you can only use one network and URL for both dns_libvirt and dhcp_libvirt.

6.2. Configuring dns_powerdns

The dns_powerdns DNS provider manages DNS records using the PowerDNS REST API.

Procedure
  • You can use foreman-installer to configure dns_powerdns:

    # foreman-installer \
    --foreman-proxy-dns true \
    --foreman-proxy-dns-provider powerdns \
    --enable-foreman-proxy-plugin-dns-powerdns \
    --foreman-proxy-plugin-dns-powerdns-rest-api-key api_key \
    --foreman-proxy-plugin-dns-powerdns-rest-url http://localhost:8081/api/v1/servers/localhost

Appendix A: Smart Proxy server Scalability Considerations

The maximum number of Smart Proxy servers that Foreman server can support has no fixed limit. It was tested that a Foreman server can support 17 Smart Proxy servers with 2 vCPUs. However, scalability is highly variable, especially when managing Puppet clients.

Smart Proxy server scalability when managing Puppet clients depends on the number of CPUs, the run-interval distribution, and the number of Puppet managed resources. Smart Proxy server has a limitation of 100 concurrent Puppet agents running at any single point in time. Running more than 100 concurrent Puppet agents results in a 503 HTTP error.

For example, assuming that Puppet agent runs are evenly distributed with less than 100 concurrent Puppet agents running at any single point during a run-interval, a Smart Proxy server with 4 CPUs has a maximum of 1250 – 1600 Puppet clients with a moderate workload of 10 Puppet classes assigned to each Puppet client. Depending on the number of Puppet clients required, the Foreman installation can scale out the number of Smart Proxy servers to support them.

If you want to scale your Smart Proxy server when managing Puppet clients, the following assumptions are made:

  • There are no external Puppet clients reporting directly to the Foreman integrated Smart Proxy.

  • All other Puppet clients report directly to an external Smart Proxy.

  • There is an evenly distributed run-interval of all Puppet agents.

Note
Deviating from the even distribution increases the risk of overloading Foreman server. The limit of 100 concurrent requests applies.

The following table describes the scalability limits using the recommended 4 CPUs.

Table 5. Puppet Scalability Using 4 CPUs
Puppet Managed Resources per Host Run-Interval Distribution

1

3000 – 2500

10

2400 – 2000

20

1700 – 1400

The following table describes the scalability limits using the minimum 2 CPUs.

Table 6. Puppet Scalability Using 2 CPUs
Puppet Managed Resources per Host Run-Interval Distribution

1

1700 – 1450

10

1500 – 1250

20

850 – 700

Appendix B: dhcp_isc Settings

The dhcp_isc provider uses a combination of the ISC DHCP server OMAPI management interface and parsing of configuration and lease files. This requires it to be run on the same host as the DHCP server. The following settings are defined in dhcp_isc.yml:

Configuring the path to the config and leases files:
:config: /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
:leases: /var/lib/dhcpd/dhcpd.leases
Securing the DHCP server with an omapi_key
:key_name: My_OMAPI_Key
:key_secret: My_Key_Secret
Setting a port on which the DHCP server listens
:omapi_port: My_DHCP_Server_Port  # default: 7911

The server is defined in dhcp.yml:

Setting the host on which the DHCP server runs on
:server: My_DHCP_Server_FQDN

Appendix C: DHCP Options for Network Configuration

--foreman-proxy-dhcp

Enables the DHCP service. You can set this option to true or false.

--foreman-proxy-dhcp-managed

Enables Foreman to manage the DHCP service. You can set this option to true or false.

--foreman-proxy-dhcp-gateway

The DHCP pool gateway. Set this to the address of the external gateway for hosts on your private network.

--foreman-proxy-dhcp-interface

Sets the interface for the DHCP service to listen for requests. Set this to eth1.

--foreman-proxy-dhcp-nameservers

Sets the addresses of the nameservers provided to clients through DHCP. Set this to the address for Foreman server on eth1.

--foreman-proxy-dhcp-range

A space-separated DHCP pool range for Discovered and Unmanaged services.

--foreman-proxy-dhcp-server

Sets the address of the DHCP server to manage.

Run foreman-installer --help to view more options related to DHCP and other Smart Proxy services.